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Global warming — Earth’s ‘carb’ overload 

Whether the basis for climate change is over-reliance on fossil fuels, loss of jungle canopy, too many chemical fertilizers, natural phenomenon, all of the above, or none of the above – the fact remains that global temperatures are showing an upward trend.  

Some claim the climb is caused by industrialization.   Others disagree and point to a Medieval Warm Period and other episodes of global warming through the ages.  But the crux of the matter is that, unlike our Middle Ages counterparts, the humans living in this era possess the skills, knowledge, and wherewithal to temper the impacts of rising global temperatures. 

We can pull less carbon out of those long-long-long-term storage deposits of coal and oil, plant a few more trees, and let cows eat grass instead of stuffing them with grain.  But we can also try to keep temperatures within our own Goldilocks Zone by sequestering more carbon in soils that won’t be disturbed for extended periods of time.   

Even if all new sources of carbon were reduced to zero, there’s still too much in the atmosphere now – and it has to go.  Scientists are working on numerous projects designed to remove excess carbon from the atmosphere, but soil sequestration remains among the simplest and least expensive solutions.   

First, it must be said that the much maligned “greenhouse effect” is actually a good thing.  It’s what makes this planet habitable for humans.   

In the atmosphere, radiation from the sun generates heat.  As it bounces around in the “greenhouse,” some of this heat is absorbed by the earth and some is released back to space.  But greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane absorb and trap heat.  When there is an excess of this type of gas in the atmosphere, too much heat is trapped and radiated back to the earth, resulting in global warming.   

Other greenhouse gases include water vapor and nitrous oxide.  Industrial chlorofluorocarbons are highly-regulated, synthetic greenhouse gases. 

But carbon dioxide (CO2) has become a primary focus becausits increase is associated with human activity.  Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have jumped from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million since the mid-1800s, which coincide with the early days of the Industrial Revolution. 

To reduce carbon compounds in the atmosphere, science looks for ways to naturally or artificially sequester excess carbon for long-term storage. 

Putting the atmosphere on a low-carb(on) diet 

Limiting and reducing the amount of carbon in the atmosphere is the goal of carbon sequestration.     

Vegetation, oceans, and soils are examples of natural sequestration.  These carbon sinks naturally absorb atmospheric CO2.   

Carbon capture, ocean injection, and geological storage are examples of artificial sequestration.   Captured CO2 has a number of industrial uses, including the manufacture of fizzy beverages and plastic bottles.  Athe costs for these new technologies drop, their uses are expected to rise. 

As sinks go, compost use is among the best.  Amending soils with raw manures and biochar also sequester carbon, but neither offers such a wide range of other soil-enhancing benefits as does compost use.    

Almost everyone can contribute to carbon sequestration 

Regenerative agriculture can restore soil health and make a major impact on carbon sequestration.  In fact, the Rodale Institute says more than 100 percent of current global CO2 emissions could be sequestered if all pasture and cropland management was based on regenerative agriculture. 

But one needn’t be a farmer to create carbon sinks.  From backyard to utility easements to parkland, there is opportunity for every community to contribute to the reduction of the planet’s carbon overload.   

Know that things like soil type and local climate can influence carbon retention.  Tactics must reflect the region, because a good strategy for the arid west may not be the best choice for humid, subtropical Florida.   

Yet all sequestration approaches will have one thing in common – decades or centuries-long confinement of that carbon without disturbance: 

  • Establishing a lawn by incorporating compost?  Yes. 
  • Topdressing a garden plot that is tilled every year? Not so much. 
  • Using compost to amend a field that is plowed every season?  Not that great. 
  • Planting that same field with perennials or converting it to grassland?  Much better. 

Any patch of soil that can be amended, planted, and then left undisturbed for many years is a potential carbon sink.  This includes every community’s roadsides, athletic fields, and recreation areas. 

Bottom line:  Earth’s history is peppered with episodes of warming followed by ice ages.  Unless humans learn to manage carbon to moderate temperature extremes – no matter the cause — those who survive this era of global warming may learn the hard way that nature always seeks to return to a state of balance.    

How much compost for my garden?

Compost makes a great addition to any garden plan.  But how much compost do you need?

A new plot in sand may require wheelbarrows of the stuff.  But if you are digging up a patch of lawn that has seen repeated compost applications over the years, the soil beneath the sod should be in pretty good shape.  A sprinkle might be all that’s needed.

How can you tell if the soil is good?  

The best method is soil testing.  (Contact your county Cooperative Extension Service for more information).  But you can use visual clues, too.  

Weeds like purslane, crabgrass, and dandelion are signs of a troubled soil.  

Stick a spade in the ground and turn over a shovelful of soil.  If it’s sticky and looks like modeling clay or dry and resembles beach sand, you’ve got big problems.  Fortunately, your soil is probably somewhere between these two extremes. 

Is it dark brown and loose?  Are there earthworms?  That’s what you want to see.  

How much compost do you need for a garden?

If building raised beds or container gardening, the soil blend should be about 30 percent compost.  When breaking new ground, incorporate 2 to 3 inches into the top 6 to 8 inches of soil.  

If your soil is very hard,  and you are planning deep rooted vegetables like tomatoes,  consider digging a little deeper.  Maintain the compost-to-soil ratio at about one part compost to two parts soil.

For an established garden with decent soil, just rake an inch or two into the surface before planting.   A 1/8 to 1/4 inch layer of compost sprinkled on the surface as needed throughout the growing season can revitalize flagging rows or containers.  The compost will feed your plants when you water. 

Three to 4 inches of compost can also be used as mulch during the growing season or as blankets when putting beds to sleep for the winter.  However, don’t pile compost up against tree trunks and stems of woody ornamentals.   

Our compost calculator can help you determine how much to buy.       

How much does compost weigh?

Depending on moisture level, figure 2 to 2.5 cubic yards of compost per ton.  A one cubic foot bag of compost will weigh about 40 pounds (1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet).

A product shipped at 30 percent moisture will weigh less than one at 60 percent when it crosses the weigh scale, resulting in more cubic yards per ton than the wetter material when delivered.  

This may be good for keeping transportation costs low. But it also means the microbes responsible for aerobic degradation of the composting mass might die of thirst.  Weights that are too high could be indicative of low oxygen levels resulting from compaction and/or too much moisture — again, not good for the beneficial microbial populations.

An ideal compost will be 40-50 percent moisture.

Are compost and fertilizer the same?

Compost and fertilizer are not the same. But compost does have fertilizer value.

Wikipedia describes fertilizer as any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.”

Compost’s nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium (a.k.a. NPK) values are low compared to a synthetic fertilizer.  Some may add ingredients like urea to hike these macronutrient numbers.

That said, compost’s NPK value does have dollar value. The nutrients delivered by a compost product should be a factor in any input decisions involving synthetic fertilizer purchases.  Compost also adds a slew of micronutrients not typically found in common synthetics and improves nutrient uptake.

Compost feeds the soil. In turn, the soil takes care of the plants, offering a smorgasbord of nutrients, pest and disease resistance, and more.   But those nutrients are slow-release, feeding plants over time.  The benefits of a single compost application can stretch over multiple seasons.

Fertilizer’s sole purpose is feeding plants.  The primary function of most synthetic fertilizers is adding N, P, and/or K.  Application gives an immediate burst of nutrition.

Do you need fertilizer if you use compost?

For the home gardener, probably not, especially if that gardener is a long time compost user.

But for a commercial grower?  Maybe.  If the crop likes a punch of nitrogen (for example) at a certain point in the growth cycle, the addition of a synthetic fertilizer may be warranted.

However, the smart grower will carefully weigh the cost of any input against the expected return on investment. Sometimes, a lower yield will still net higher profits if input costs for synthetic fertilizers and pest control products are reduced or eliminated as a crop management expense.

Also, keep in mind that compost-amended soil reduces rainwater and irrigation runoff, which means more nutrients are retained in the soil.   This will impact synthetic fertilizer input requirement, as well.

The Compost Connoisseur 

Compost maturity and stability are not the same 

A mature compost is usually stable, but a stable compost may not be mature.  Yet, both products have their uses.  Though the term“maturity” and “stability” are often used interchangeably to describe compost, they should not be.  

Confused? 

Look at a red and green tomato.  Both are stable and edible.  But the green tomato won’t be mature until it turns red.  This work-in-progress tomato is a bit on the tart side with firmer flesh that holds up when fried.  The mature red one is sweeter, softer, and makes a great sauce. 

As distinct products, mature and immature composts have their specific characteristics and uses, too.  But like red and green tomatoes, they’re definitely not the same. 

Compost maturity and stability 

MATURITY  All organicwill eventually decay until nothing remains but atoms.  The trick is to reach a degradation phase where the easy stuff is gone, leaving only dark, slow-to-degrade, earthy-smelling material behind.  That’s a mature compost. 

Between the raw waste and finished compost, however, are a series of degradation steps that aren’t that beneficial to plants.  In an immature state, compost can release compounds harmful to plants, fight with plants for oxygen, and pull nitrogen out of the soil.  

Compost maturity is best determined by testing, which is a good reason to insist on seeing a recent lab report for the compost under consideration.  Maturity indicators on lab reports include: 

  • C:N ratios  
  • Germination rates  
  • Oxygen uptake  

Maturity assumptions based on curing time are also recognized within the industry, but may not be as reliable as testing. 

STABILITY  If a compost passes the maturity test, it is a stable, market-ready product.  In a mature compost, microbiological activity slows because all the “easy” food has been consumed.  

But there are conditions within the composting mass that can cause product to enter a stable state without reaching maturity. 

Compost that has been dried to remove moisture, for example, makes it lighter for shipping, but can exhibit reduced biological activity, as well.  The same thing happens if the pile is deprived of oxygen. 

Unfortunately, once moisture or air has been reintroduced, microbial colonies can reestablish and return to active feeding.  Pathogens can rebloom and odors resurface as the composting process resumes. 

Germination tests remain one of the best indicators of mature stability.  If the compost exhibits no indications of phytotoxicity in conjunction with good pH ranges and slowed microbial activity, then the product has probably passed into the mature range. 

If trying to evaluate stability while standing next to a pile in a landscape supply yard, look for: 

  • A light, porous, evenly-textured product that encourages good air flow 
  • A compost with sufficient moisture to stick together when squeezed in the palm of the hand without crumbling or dripping water 
  • A pleasant, earthy scent 

Selecting the right product 

In the absence of testing information, the easiest way to gauge a product’s maturity is to smell it.  Compost that smells like soil has likely reached a stable, mature state and is ready for use anywhere and by anyone. 

Product that still retains some pungency isn’t stable or mature.  It’s not quite ready for unrestricted use.  But, provided it has met minimum quality standards for pathogen and vector reductions (as specified by regulations), the compost can be applied in rural areas away from sensitive noses where its higher NPK value is much appreciated by farmers. 

Time and nature will finish the job of product maturation and stabilization. 

What is compost used for?

“What is compost used for?  What’s the difference between compost and manure, or compost and topsoil, or compost and mulch, or compost and…?”

These questions (or some variation thereof) have been posed in Google searches by thousands of McGill Compost website visitors over the years, suggesting a broad lack of understanding on the part of the general public about soil products, in general, and compost products, in particular.

They tell us there’s much more work to be done before compost becomes a solid, steady blip on the soil amendment radar. 

It doesn’t matter whether the compost purveyor is municipal, commercial, or non-profit, or if it’s selling B2C or B2B (or both).   Compost manufacturers, distributors, and retailers can all benefit from marketing programs and advertising campaigns that include a healthy dollop of consumer education along with branding, product descriptions, and price points.

In a recent BioCycle article, Dr. Sally Brown reminds us that “… feel good sayings without quantitative information to back them up doesn’t always help to move the product. To a city engineer, these feel good statements can make you sound like a new age guru pushing a dietary supplement rather than a knowledgeable resource with alternative solutions.

Ouch.  

To be fair to all the OGs out there, in the early days of the composting industry, the only thing we had to peddle was feel good. There was little bona fide research or hard facts that demonstrated compost’s effectiveness to a customer,  just anecdotal evidence and side-by-side field photographs comparing compost and no compost applications.

McGill’s own economic impact studies, conducted in the early 2000s and funded by the state of North Carolina, were among the first to investigate dollar benefits related to compost use.  The research may have been simple by today’s standards, but it validated information our agricultural customers had been telling us for nearly a decade – and provided a solid foundation for the growth of our compost sales program into high-value markets.  (READ: the 2000 and 2001 McGill study reports)

But dollars and cents are only one part of compost’s amazing story that started with fertilizer value, but now just keeps going and going and going to include everything from food waste recycling to stormwater management to carbon storage.

Yet, the abundance of compost’s benefits seems to be a message that hasn’t been told loud enough or long enough or often enough to reach the ears of the majority.  There are still too many stormwater plans out there that don’t fix the soil as a critical first step,  communities that burn or bury compostables, and farmers who don’t use compost on conventionally-managed fields.

Talking who, what, when, where, and how when promoting compost is good.  But today, when a potential customer, policymaker, or specification writer is searching the web, s/he also wants to know the why — backed up with facts and figures.  Why is compost the right solution for their particular problem?   Why is it a better choice than amendment X, Y, or Z?

What is compost used for?

Adding macro and micro nutrients, building soil organic matter, replenishing and sustaining soil microbes, improving nutrient uptake and plant disease resistance, creating pore space, adjusting pH, absorbing rain impact energy, degrading pollutants, storing carbon —  it’s a lengthy benefits list for a single product that just happens to be “green.” 

Fortunately, unlike decades past, cyberspace is now loaded with scientific studies that provide meaningful data related to compost performance.  This is news the marketplace needs to hear.    

For example, it’s true to say compost alleviates compaction.  But when presenting to engineers, would it not be better to also include a link to or slide of this table that compares compost’s performance to other solutions, showing it among the best?

Or when a city is making decisions about its stormwater management strategy, why not share some comparative costs per gallon retained for various retention solutions discussed in Milwaukee’s Green Infrastructure Plan (see Page 63)?

“Compost will hold 10 times its weight in water” is good for visualization.  But how does it help a stormwater system designer calculate potential water and cost savings for mandating compost use vs. rain gardens or storage tunnels?  

These are the types of statistics a decision-maker needs to see when considering options:

  • A typical compost is about 50% organic matter. 
  • Every 1 percent increase in soil organic matter adds 16,000 gallons of water-holding capacity per acre foot.  
  • At only 2 percent organic matter, soil can hold all the rainfall from a typical rain event — around 1 inch or 27,154 gallons. 
  • A 1 percent increase in topsoil organic matter also stores about 60 tons of carbon per acre.

While specific numbers may vary depending on the study and/or source, the core message — that compost can be the better choice — remains constant. 

Researchers say the majority of today’s buyers do their due diligence and make purchasing decisions before reaching out to vendors for that all-important “first touch.”   If true, it’s more important than ever that brochures, point of sale displays, websites, or other outreach tools make the effort to quantify as well as entice. 

The environmental benefits of compost use are still an important part of the message. But the days of the easy sell to a predisposed customer base are long gone.  Now it’s time to win over everyone else.

Expansion of both B2C and B2B markets depends on the industry’s ability to effectively silence skeptics, motivate fence-sitters, and educate the uninformed — while keeping products (and services) cost-competitive.

Facts and figures will play a big role in that education effort.

Granted, there are lots of challenges ahead, and we do need more research of relevance to compost users to help fill quantitative gaps.

But composting is at an unprecedented place in its own history.  For the first time, the general public is eager to know more about what composting and compost use can do to positively impact a wide variety of issues. 

“What is compost used for?”

For the continued growth and wellness of the industry, research-based numbers need to be part of that all-important answer. 

Compost is soil’s superhero

Sure, compost adds nutrients. But that might be this soil amendment’s least important function. 

Quite often, articles will mention compost as a replacement for some or all of the nutrients that might be provided to plants through applications of synthetic (man-made) fertilizers.   

That’s certainly true.  Compost delivers the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK), plus a slew of plant-essential micronutrients that are missing from most synthesized fertilizer products.  Compost provides plants with a wholesome, well-rounded meal, not the nutritional equivalent of junk food. 

But what these fertilizer-focused articles rarely mention is the fact that the real value in compost use is not related to feeding plants, but to feeding soil … and soil does require a wholesome diet to function as a true soil and not a dead substrate. 

Compost feeds soil

Providing plant nutrients is just one of many soil functions.  Worms and other creatures that live in healthy soils help to physically break down food sources, then microbes take over to convert that food into plant-available form. 

Both physical and microbial conversion depend on a soil environment that can support those lifeforms.  If the soil is chronically too wet, too dry, too compacted  yada, yada  then it can’t support a healthy soil ecosystem.  That plot of ground may not be soil at all, but lifeless dirt. 

To countermand the impacts of human activity, disturbed soils require regular program of replenishment that includes organic matter and microbes.  Compost provides both.  Compost feeds soil.

Then, when it rains, soil retains that water, reducing runoff.  When runoff is reduced, so is erosion, sedimentation, and water pollution.  Because soil microbial activity also degrades pollutants, any stormwater that does run off is cleaner.  

That same microbial activity can help neutralize some soil-borne diseases, too. 

Improving plant nutrition, aiding in disease control, reducing water pollution, and retaining water are all important soil functions. 

But wait, there’s more. 

Compost as a carbon sink 

The build-up of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere is cause for concern.  As more greenhouse gases flood the atmosphere, temperatures increase. 

This rise in global temperatures influences many things, erratic and extreme weather being one of the most visible.  Subsequent climate shifts can impact people, crops, and livestock for hundreds of years. 

When used to amend soils, compost sequesters carbon.  This means the soil will act as a carbon “sink,” capturing and holding carbon in stasis – but only as long as the soil remains undisturbed.  When the soil is tilled, that carbon is released. 

Extensive use of compost for perennial crops and other long-term application(grasslands, tree farms, utility easements, etc.) can positively impact atmospheric conditions by reducing greenhouse gases.   

At the same time, the addition of compost rebuilds a topsoil layer that has been eroded or scraped away by farming, development, and other human activity.  Since topsoil loss has been identified as a significant threat to planetary health, second only to population growthits restoration is a global priority.   

At a time when nearly a third of the world’s arable land has become unproductive in just a few decades, compost really can be that superhero swooping in to save topsoil, save water, save the atmosphere, and save the planet. 

Comparing costs per gallon retained 

Soil amendment is one of the least expensive ways to collect and manage stormwater 

Manage water where it falls.” 

This sound advice is the foundation of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District’s Regional Green Infrastructure Plana program that identified soil amendment as one of the least expensive ways to manage stormwater.  At 28 cents per gallon, improving soil is second only to native plantings in lowest cost per gallon retained. 

Green roofs?  $4.72 per gallon.  Those fancy-schmancy deep storage tunnels?  $2.42 per gallon.  At $1.59 per gallon, even pretty little rain gardens cost more than five times that of simple soil amendment. 

Milwaukee is not alone in promoting soil amendment as a first line of defense for stormwater management  For example: 

  • Denver and GreenleyColorado, require compost use for new landscaping, as does Leander, Texas. 
  • Some state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) now routinely specify compost.  A few years ago, the Texas DOT said it was the largest single market for compost in the U.S. 

In an urban environment, opportunities for soil amendment abound.  City parks, athletic fields, planters, urban lawns, highway medians and easements, foundation backfill – anywhere there’s soil, there’s opportunity for inexpensive water retention. 

Every 1 percent increase in soil organic matter (SOM) content adds an additional 16,000 gallons of water-holding capacity per acre foot.  A site managed to maintain soil organic matter at only 2 percent can hold all the water of a typical rain event (1 inch or less), which is 27,154 gallons per acre.     

In fact, at 5 percent SOM, the soil can retain the water equivalent of nearly 3-inches of rainfall.  In some regions, this equal95 percent of all storm events. 

Soil amendment may not solve all rainfall issues, especially in downtown areas.  But managing water where it falls can be the most sensible, efficient, environmentally- and economically-prudent strategy for “first line of defense” stormwater management.   

Can compost use impact deep-soil carbon storage?

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels have reached a 3-million-year high.  The overload has been building up since the Industrial Revolution hit its stride about 200 years ago.  One culprit is conventional farming, which releases stored soil carbon, (C) relies on synthetic input, and degrades soils.  The use of fossil fuels — which adds even more carbon to the air — is another major contributor to the increase. 

Impacts include reduction in carbon storage capacity due to topsoil loss, pollution, and climactic changes linked to global warming.

While some say CO2 levels are a non-issue, others believe the opposite and are working to reduce atmospheric carbon by cutting greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering more carbon.

Proposed solutions include ideas like basalt rock injection and ocean storage.   But one of the simplest and most cost-effective options already in play is to simply return carbon to soils.

But there is a catch.  Since soil disturbance releases carbon, farmland dedicated to annual crops offers little to no upper layer storage potential.  Unless the farm — organic or conventional — has adopted no-till practices, the soil is disrupted every year during planting.  Therefore, acres that will remain undisturbed for long periods of time are the best candidates for long-term carbon storage, a.k.a. carbon farming.

This translates into a need for conversion of annual grains and other crops to perennials to maximize soil carbon storage potential.  But developing high-yielding perennial grains is a process that will take time.

Applying compost to both annual and perennial acres is something that can be done now.

Long-term soil carbon storage has two primary pathways — plant-based via deep-rooted perennials (like some trees and grasses) and soil amendment.  Compost leads the pack as the amendment of choice, offering a plethora of soil- and crop-enhancing benefits in addition to carbon storage.

The carbon sequestration benefit of compost use is two-fold.  It adds compost’s inherent carbon content to the soil.  But it also improves soil productivity, increasing above- and below-ground biomass, which stores more carbon.  This positive impact can persist for many years from just one compost application.

Microorganisms and insects like earthworms and ants also influence carbon storage.

Current research emphasis seems to focus on C storage potential in agriculture.  That’s because worldwide, farmers crop 4.62 billion acres — a treasure-trove of carbon storage potential.

But it should be noted there are many more non-ag acres that can offer long-term, deep-soil carbon storage, too.  No need to wait for researchers to develop new perennial grains or convince farmers to make the switch from annuals to perennials.

In the U.S. alone, millions of acres could take and store compost-applied carbon today:

  • 40 million acres of lawns
  • 50 million acres of managed turf including 700,000 athletic fields and 17,000 golf courses
  • 7 million acres of public lands under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (FY 2017)
  • Umpteen million acres in government-controlled roadside easements, utility rights-of-way, local and state parklands, and other managed greenspace, both public and private.

Just a 1% increase in soil organic matter (about 20 tons of compost per acre or a 1/4-inch application depth) can store 10 tons of carbon per acre

While it may not be practical or possible to add compost to all those acres, the potential for long-term, compost-based carbon storage in the U.S. alone is … well … pretty big.  And the deeper the storage, the longer the retention time.  Even annually tilled acres can offer C sequestration if that carbon can find a pathway to deeper soils below the plow layer.

But how does compost-applied carbon migrate from upper soil levels to deep-soil storage?

Below the plow layer — deep-soil carbon storage

A “plow layer” is the layer of soil disturbed when a plow (plough) is dragged through a field.  Depending on the type of plow used and its settings, the layer depth can range from a typical 8 inches to 20 inches or more.

The trick is to facilitate the movement of carbon from the plow layer to deeper soils where it can lie locked up and undisturbed for centuries.

Typically, the root systems of trees and perennial grasses grow deeper than annuals.  As the root systems of plants bury themselves in soil, they do more than just carry carbon in their tissues.

Downward growth also creates passageways for water and a transportation route for microbes.

Critter burrows create pathways for water and microbes, too.  Well below the plow line, termite colonies can be found as deep as 6 meters.  Some types of ants live at depths of 3-4 meters.  (1 yard = .91 meters)

Nightcrawlers will work their way down several meters into the soil, bringing organic matter with them.  Their castings (excreta) have a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 12-15:1 and include beneficial microbes.  A healthy soil layer above ensures plenty of available carbon for below-the-plow-layer earthworm storage.

C storage depends on many factors

It is important to remember neither the C cycle nor microbial metabolic processes operate in isolation. These functions are influenced by many factors like:

  • Nutrients
  • Temperature
  • Moisture
  • pH

Climate plays a role, too.  Globally, cool-wet regions tend to have the highest concentrations of soil carbon and deserts the lowest.  One of the more disturbing aspects of a warming planet is that more soil-bound carbon may be released to atmosphere as temperatures rise.

Effective solutions will require wholistic approaches, but compost use continues to rank among the top options due to its affordability, universal applicability, ease of use, and immediate availability.

Bottom line:  The potential for deep-soil carbon storage exists, even on annually tilled cropland, through management programs designed to improve soil health and encourage symbiotic facilitators like nightcrawlers.