How does bioremediation work?
Organic waste offers up a smorgasbord to hungry microbes
Unseen by the human eye, microbes are the soil’s equivalent of worker bees. They are responsible for a slew of soil functions. Without them, soils don’t work as they should.
“Soil organisms decompose organic compounds, including manure, plant residue, and pesticides, preventing them from entering water and becoming pollutants. They sequester nitrogen and other nutrients that might otherwise enter groundwater, and they fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making it available to plants. Many organisms enhance soil aggregation and porosity, thus increasing infiltration and reducing runoff. Soil organisms prey on crop pests and are food for above-ground animals.” — NRCS/USDA
Algae, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa — aerobic microbes and other soil fauna need oxygen, water, and food. Other survival influences include environmental factors like temperature and pH.
In a managed setting like composting, microbial feeding activity quickly turns organic waste — including some toxic compounds — into a safe, carbon-rich soil amendment product known as compost.
The organics can be food waste, yard debris, biosolids, petroleum derivatives, or anything else that was once alive. As long as the waste stream is free of agents that would kill bacteria and the like, the material should compost.
Of course, the time required to break things down depends on the specific type of waste, particle size, the composting process in use, etc. But for the most part, a few days of controlled, high-rate composting followed by a curing period of several weeks is enough to turn common organics into dark, aromatic compost.
How does bioremediation work?
All matter – including organic waste — is made up of individual atoms. Atoms join with other atoms to become molecules. Molecules hook up to become compounds, and they’re all held together by chemical bonds. For organic material, that bond is commonly of the “covalent” variety. This means the atoms share, rather than gain or lose, electrons. This makes for a more stable molecule.
During composting, hungry microbes dine on the waste stream’s inherent sugars and proteins, releasing enzymes as they digest their food.
These critters are mostly after the carbon, but their feeding also releases the nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus that plants use as food. (There are also some microbes that can pull nitrogen from the air and convert it to plant-available form.)
Their enzymes break chemical bonds, eventually reducing compounds to molecules and molecules to atoms. Toxic compounds disintegrate. Along the way, elements and simple compounds realign, creating more benign substances like carbon dioxide and water.
Controlling the composting environment ensures ideal conditions for these microbes, setting the stage for rapid biodegradation. Where decomposition and stabilization could take months (or years) in a natural setting, composting achieves the same outcome in a matter of weeks.
The tighter the control, the faster the bioremediation process.
How does bioremediation work? Very well.